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Research Paper

Applied Science and Convergence Technology 2019; 28(3): 60-65

Published online May 31, 2019


Copyright © The Korean Vacuum Society.

Synthesis of Transition Metal Disulfides with Liquid Ammonium Sulfide as a Reliable Sulfur Precursor

Soo Ho Choia , Chang Seok Ohb , Stephen Boandohb , Woochul Yanga , Soo Min Kimc , and Ki Kang Kimb , *

aDepartment of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Republic of Korea, bDepartment of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Republic of Korea, cInstitute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Jeonbuk 55324, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:*E-mail: kkkim@dongguk.edu

Received: May 22, 2019; Accepted: May 29, 2019

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-CommercialLicense (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution,and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We introduce liquid ammonium sulfide as a reliable and carbon-free sulfur precursor for synthesizing large-area transition metal disulfides (TMdS) in chemical vapor deposition. The flux of sulfur during TMdS growth is precisely controlled by passing a known amount of carrier gas through a bubbling system containing liquid ammonium sulfide. However, controlling the flux of sulfur through the conventional evaporation of sulfur powder using a heating belt remains a challenge. By achieving controllability of sulfur flux, we study growth kinetics such as nucleation density and growth rate. Furthermore, the continuous supply of the sulfur precursor results in the growth of a large-area monolayer and a few layers of MoS2 film. In addition, we present the feasibility of ammonium sulfide as an effective and clean precursor for the growth of a wide range of TMdS, thus enabling it to serve as a universal sulfur precursor.

Keywords: Two-dimensional materials, Transition metal dichalcogenides, Chemical vapor deposition, Precursor, Ammonium sulfide

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