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Research Paper

Applied Science and Convergence Technology 2023; 32(5): 101-105

Published online September 30, 2023


Copyright © The Korean Vacuum Society.

Dielectric Characteristics of BaTiO3 Solid Solution Substituted with Nb5+, Ta5+, Bi3+, and Sb3+ Ions

Yeon Jung Kim*

College of Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin 16890, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:yjkim80@dankook.ac.kr

Received: July 28, 2023; Revised: August 14, 2023; Accepted: August 15, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium without alteration, provided that the original work is properly cited.


The structural and electrical properties of ferroelectrics can be altered through different mechanisms to meet necessary conditions, depending on the additive type in appropriate proportions. This study investigates the growth process of four types of BaTiO3 (BT), each substituted with 0.1 mol% of trivalent and pentavalent elements: Nb5+, Ta5+, Bi3+, and Sb3+. The relationship between the dielectric properties of perovskite formation and grain growth is explored across the four dopants. The results confirm the proficient growth of these four BT compositions when substituted with trivalent and pentavalent ions, yielding relatively high-density particles. Moreover, the fundamental dielectric properties of the ferroelectrics satisfied the required levels. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that both Nb- and Ta-doped BT, prepared by substituting 0.1 mol% of Nb5+ and Ta5+, demonstrated distinctive splitting of the (200) and (002) peaks within the range of 45.10–45.45. However, no clear evidence was observed for Bi- and Sb-doped BT compositions containing trivalent Bi3+ and Sb3+ ions. In particular, the transition temperature of the four substituted BT compositions exhibited negligible divergence from that of pure BT, with a marginal shift toward lower temperatures. In addition, contrary to pure BT, the characteristics of ln(T-Tm) vs. ln[(1/K)-(1/Km)] and 1/K vs. T, which elucidate high-temperature phase transitions, exhibited relatively well-satisfied behavior with the modified Curie–Weiss law.

Keywords: BaTiO3, Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3, Dopants substitution, Ferroelectrics, Modified Curie-Weiss law

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