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Research Paper

Applied Science and Convergence Technology 2024; 33(3): 72-75

Published online May 30, 2024


Copyright © The Korean Vacuum Society.

Energy Level Alignment of Indium Tin Oxide/Pentacene/C60

Hyunbok Lee*

Department of Semiconductor Physics and Institute of Quantum Convergence Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:hyunbok@kangwon.ac.kr

Received: May 19, 2024; Revised: May 22, 2024; Accepted: May 30, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium without alteration, provided that the original work is properly cited.


Organic p-n heterojunctions are widely utilized in exciton dissociation and charge-generation layers in optoelectronic devices. In these applications, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of a p-type organic semiconductor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of an n-type organic semiconductor (HOMOp−LUMOn) significantly affects device performance. Therefore, determining the energy-level alignment of an organic p-n junction is important. In this study, the energy-level alignment of indium tin oxide/pentacene/C60 interfaces was investigated using in-situ ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Type II alignment and significant band bending were observed at the pentacene/C60 interface. The HOMOp−LUMOn was measured to be 0.97 eV, similar to reported values. The HOMOp−LUMOn was not significantly affected by the substrate work function when the pentacene layer thickness was sufficient. These results are important for the design of efficient organic device architectures.

Keywords: Organic p-n junction, Energy level alignment, Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Pentacene, C60

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